Agricoltura e strategie di adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici in Africa
SELEZIONE DI CONVEGNI, WORKSHOP, PUBBLICAZIONI E DOCUMENTI SU:
Agricoltura e strategie di adattamento ai cambiamenti climatici in Africa
Negli ultimi 6 mesi del 2008 si sono svolte in Africa e altrove numerose Conferenze Internazionali che hanno riguardato i problemi di questa Regione:
Tra i Convegni più interessanti sulle tematiche delle relazioni tra Cambiamenti climatici ed Agricoltura in Africa segnaliamo:
THIRD ANNUAL AFRICAN GREEN REVOLUTION CONFERENCE
28-29 August 2008 - Oslo, Norway
The third annual Africa Green Revolution Conference will build on the value of public/private partnerships addressed in detail at the 2007 and 2006 meetings. A combination of plenary sessions and smaller roundtable discussions will focus on key issues such as: increasing productivity in African agriculture, achieving food security, and pursuing wider African economic growth priorities. A spotlight will be trained on the role of farming as a business at both the commercial and small-holder level, with an eye toward true market effectiveness. A critical undercurrent to the dialogue will be developing the mechanisms for a system of adequate rural agricultural financing.
Conference website: http://www.africangreenrevolutionconference.com/
Vi segnalo in particolare questa sintesi dei lavori: http://www.africangreenrevolution.com/en/conferences/2008/documentation/summaries/summary_part2.html
WORLD AGRICULTURAL FORUM: 2008 AFRICAN CONGRESS
3-5 September - Kampala, Uganda
This Congress will meet under the theme ‘Creating Prosperity by Investing in Agriculture,’ and is expected to focus on action plans for advancing Africa’s agricultural supply chain, agribusinesses, trade policies and related sectors to enable sustainable agriculture to increase economic opportunities for African farmers and their communities.
Il sito del Forum: http://www.worldagforum.org/rel-archive-uganda-1207.htm
FIRST ALL AFRICA CONGRESS ON BIOTECHNOLOGY
22-26 September - Nairobi, Kenya
The First All Africa Congress on Biotechnology is organized by the African Stakeholders Forum () through its sister network, the Agricultural Biotechnology Network in Africa () and the African Union’s (AU) Division of Agriculture and Food Security. The theme of the Congress will be ‘the of Biotechnology for Food Security and Socio-Economic Development in Africa’. In addition to the main theme, congress participants will have an opportunity to listen to experiences of other countries in Europe, Asia, USA and Latin America about modern agricultural biotechnology and its applications in their economic transformation processes.
Il sito del Convegno: http://abneta.org/congress/
FAO HIGH-LEVEL CONFERENCE ON WATER FOR AGRICULTURE AND ENERGY IN AFRICA: THE CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE
15-17 December 2008 - Sirte, Libya.
The FAO High-level Conference on Water for Agriculture and Energy in Africa will be held in under the theme ‘The Challenges of Climate Change.’ The Conference aims at unlocking the potential of water for development in Africa. In particular, it aims at: assessing the challenges faced by the agricultural sector, in view of the impending/glooming food crisis in Africa taking into account the strong linkages with energy and climate change; carefully examining how investment in the rural space can reverse trends to obtain well balanced sub-sectors that offset production risks, close food production gaps and ensure food security; analyzing bottlenecks and constraints to accelerated water development in support of the continent’s food and energy needs; and proposing ways to promote and secure investment in water to maintain food and energy security in the region.
Per approfondimenti: http://www.fao.org/nr/water/docs/sirteconceptnote.pdf
KEY PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
Vi segnaliamo in particolare questa guida:
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION IN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE
(World Bank, January 2008)
The World Bank has released a guide that provides guidance to policy-makers and development agencies on the linkages between the design of development programmes and the objectives of adapting to climate change and limiting emissions of greenhouse gases.
e in particolare, nel Modulo 1, il capitolo dedicato alle “Measures to the Impacts of Climate Change”.
Assai interessante è anche questo documento:
THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ADAPTATION ON FOOD PRODUCTION IN LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES: EVIDENCE FROM THE NILE BASIN, ETHIOPIA
This paper, published by the International Food Policy Research Institute and written by Mahmud Yesuf, Salvatore Di Falco, Claudia Ringler and Gunnar Kohlin, presents an empirical analysis of the impact of climate change on food production in a typical low-income developing country. It estimates the determinants of adaptation to climate change and the implications of these strategies on farm productivity. The analysis relies on primary data from 1,000 farms producing cereal crops in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. IFPRI found that climate change and climate change adaptations have significant impacts on farm productivity. Extension services (both formal and farmer to farmer), as well as access to credit and information on future climate changes, affect adaptation positively and significantly. Farm households with larger access to social capital are more likely to adopt yield-related adaptation strategies.
DEVELOPMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE: A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK FOR THE WORLD BANK GROUP: TECHNICAL REPORT
(World Bank, 2009)
This technical report serves as a background for the Bank’s strategic framework for climate change, which was approved in 2008. The technical report covers in detail how the World Bank Group will support climate actions in country-led development processes, as well as how to mobilize additional concessional and innovative finance. It represents the culmination of a global multistakeholder consultation process that benefitted from feedback from thousands of development professionals, policy makers, academics, scientists, youth, indigenous peoples and the private sector representing a wide range of countries, views and perspectives.
Vi segnalo una breve sintesi di 2 pagine: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCC/Resources/407863-1219339233881/DCCSFTechnicalReportExcutiveSummary.pdf
WORLD BANK’S CLIMATE INVESTMENT FUNDS COMMITTEE IDENTIFIES RECIPIENT COUNTRIES FOR ADAPTATION FUNDS
30 January 2009: The Trust Fund Committees for the World Bank’s Climate Investment Funds met on 27-30 January 2009, and identified which countries will be offered funding under the PPCR within the US$6 billion Climate Investment Funds. Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cambodia, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Tajikistan and Zambia have been invited to submit projects to the World Bank’s Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), which will provide about US$500 million for scaled up action and transformational change in integrating climate resilience in national development planning. The criteria used to identify the countries included the level of vulnerability to climate change hazards and risks, country preparedness to move towards climate resilient development plans, and country distribution across regions and types of hazards. Two other programmes were also discussed: the Forest Investment Program, which will pilot and demonstrate investments to support REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) efforts of developing countries, with its next design meeting planned for 5-6 March 2009, in Washington DC, US; and the Scaling Up Renewable Energy Program, where a small multi-stakeholder working group will be convened on 9-10 March 2009, to prepare a draft design document.
4 February 2009: Speaking at the fourth World Congress on Conservation Agriculture (CA), held from 4-7 February 2009, in New Delhi, India, Shivaji Pandey, Director of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) Plant Production and Protection Division, called on the world’s farmers to adopt CA practices to ensure sustainable yield growth and reduce agriculture’s carbon footprint. Pandey explained that global trends in yield growth are declining because current practices of agricultural intensification often affect soil, water, biodiversity and other ecosystem services needed for agricultural production. CA farming seeks to avoid these effects by reducing tillage and promoting permanent soil cover and diversified crop rotations to ensure optimal soil health and productivity. At the same time, CA reduces carbon emissions from agriculture and improves carbon sequestration in the soil. He stressed that sustainable intensification of agriculture is imperative to achieve progress in the fight against hunger and poverty while ensuring environmental sustainability, and urged governments, donors and other stakeholders to provide policy and financial support to promote CA, such as training, participatory research, building strong farmers’ organizations, and making available and encouraging local manufacturing of newly-developed CA equipment.
Per informazioni: http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/9962/icode/
Il sito del Congresso: http://www.icar.org.in/wccagri/index.html
3 February 2009: The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) with the Drylands Development Centre of the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Environment Programme are organizing an International Workshop on Adaptation to Climate Change in West African Agriculture in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, which is tentatively scheduled for March 2009. This workshop aims to bring together experts from the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, the National Agricultural Research Systems, key decision-makers, practitioners, and the National Focal Points of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. It is expected that workshop participants will develop: an improved understanding and assessment of the climate change impacts on agriculture and the associated vulnerability in West Africa; informed decisions on practical adaptation strategies for the agricultural sector in different agro-ecosystems of the region; appropriate ways to promote adaptation planning and implementation and its integration into the sustainable development planning; and a mechanism for continuous information exchange on climate change impacts and adaptation amongst the different countries in the region. Proceedings of the workshop will be published by WMO and UNDP.
Per informazioni: http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/wcp/agm/meetings/iwacc08/index_en.html#TOP
IFAD PRESIDENT CALLS ON THE ARAB AGRICULTURAL SECTOR TO ADDRESS CHALLENGES OF FOOD SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE
18 January 2009: Speaking at the 31st Summit of the League Arab States (LAS), held from 17-18 January 2009, in Kuwait City, Lennart Båge, President of the UN International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), called for re-engaging the agricultural sector to meet the challenges of food security and climate change, with particular attention to energy efficiency, water scarcity and the environment.
Båge reported that the recent food crisis has increased the number of undernourished people in LAS member States by four million, and explained that climate change will increase food price volatility and food insecurity while presenting major challenges to the mostly rain-fed agriculture in the region. Noting the region’s high population growth rate, he called for increasing food production and greater efforts for food security planning. Outlining IFAD’s strategy and achievements in LAS countries he suggested five key areas for addressing food security: increasing agricultural productivity through drought and heat resistant varieties, capacity building and technology transfer; increasing water productivity and savings; combating desertification and land degradation through projects for soil and water conservation and re-vegetation, monitoring of natural resource use, and capacity building for sustainable land management; improving infrastructure, such as roads, financial services, marketing services and price information services; and engaging youth in the agricultural and agro-processing and trading sectors to reduce unemployment and raise education levels.
Il testo dell'intervento: http://www.ifad.org/events/op/2009/las.htm
UNEP RELEASES FILM SERIES HIGHLIGHTING ADAPTATION EFFORTS IN AFRICA
3 December 2008: The UN Environment Programme (UNEP), in partnership with the UN/OCHA Integrated Resource Information Network (IRIN), has launched a film series titled “Gathering Storm - The humanitarian impact of climate change.”
The eight short videos highlight the human impact of climate change in Africa by sharing stories of how adaptation techniques, new and old, enable vulnerable communities not only to cope but to emerge stronger and more resilient. The videos highlight desertification, flooding, rainwater harvesting, malaria, erosion, drought and irrigation.
FAO RELEASES SECOND EDITION OF THE FOODCLIMATE E-NEWSLETTER
2 December 2008: The Interdepartmental Working Group on Climate Change of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has released the second edition of the FoodClimate e-newsletter.
The newsletter includes information about FAO’s participation in the 14th Conference of the Parties (COP14) to the UNFCCC and the fourth Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (COP/MOP4), currently taking place in Poznan, Poland, as well as the outcomes of recent climate change events, new publications, and an interview with Wulf Killmann, Director of the Forest Products and Industries Division of FAO and Chair of the FAO Interdepartmental Working Group on Climate Change. In the interview, Killmann addresses, among other issues: ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture; the role of forests in climate change mitigation; and the main priority areas for future work of the Interdepartmental Working Group. The newsletter also features a list of FAO organized or co-sponsored side events during COP14 and COP/MOP4 as well as an announcement of the High-level Conference on Water for Agriculture and Energy in Africa: The Challenges of Climate Change, to be held from 15-17 December 2008, in Sirte, Libya. Furthermore, the publication contains reports on: a field study on the impact of climate change on Moroccan agriculture; the outcomes of an e-discussion on climate change and its linkages to food security and nutrition; the World Summit of Regions on Climate Change, held on 30-31 October 2008, in Saint Malo, France; and the biennial international meeting “Terra Madre” on ecological and organic farming in the context of climate change, held on 23-27 October 2008, in Turin, Italy.
La Newsletter: http://www.fao.org/climatechange/newsletter/en/
FAO Climate Change Website: http://www.fao.org/climatechange/home/en/
FAO-BACKED RESEARCH PROJECT INDICATES AFRICA COULD BE A SIGNIFICANT CARBON SINK
25 November 2008: According to research conducted by CarboAfrica, an international research consortium of 15 institutions from Africa and Europe that includes the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Africa could be absorbing more carbon from the atmosphere than it emits.
After a two-year study in 11 African countries on the continent's role in the global carbon cycle, researchers indicate that Africa accounts for up to 50% in atmospheric variations of carbon dioxide between seasons, and from year to year. This impact is due to changes in the balance between carbon captured through photosynthesis by Africa's vast expanse of forests and savannas, and emissions from fires, deforestation and forest degradation. Riccardo Valentini, University of Tuscia, Italy, and CarboAfrica project coordinator, explained that evidence so far indicates that Africa seems to be a carbon sink, meaning that it takes more carbon out of the atmosphere than it releases. He further noted that, if confirmed, the study implies that Africa contributes to reducing the greenhouse effect, thus helping mitigate the consequences of climate change. The preliminary results of the project, which will continue through 2010, were presented at the Open Science conference on Africa and the Carbon Cycle: the CarboAfrica project, held from 25-27 November 2008 in Accra, Ghana. Speaking during the opening of the conference, Helena Semedo, FAO Regional Office for Africa, stressed the role of agriculture in reducing Africa's carbon emissions. She called for efforts to reach out to farmers in Africa to teach them how to use their land and their forests in such a way that Africa's carbon cycle becomes our ally in the battle against climate change, noting that greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture can be reduced using appropriate soil management techniques, while increasing productivity.
Per informazioni: http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/8664/icode/
Il Website: http://www.carboafrica.net/index_en.asp
UNITAR RECEIVES IDRC GRANT FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN AFRICA
27 January 2009: The UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) has a received a grant of CAD175,275 from the Canadian International Development Research Centre (IDRC), to support climate change adaptation activities in Africa.
The grant, awarded to UNITAR’s Climate Change Programme, will support the activities of five pilot projects, in Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Ethiopia and South Africa in 2009, under UNITAR’s umbrella project “Advancing Capacities to support Climate Change Adaptation” (ACCCA). These projects aim to bring together both the scientific community and stakeholders, in order for them to jointly implement climate change adaptation projects that address environmental changes and promote sustainable development.
Il Website: http://www.acccaproject.org/accca/?q=node/1
UNCCD EXECUTIVE SECRETARY URGES AFRICA TO “GET ON THE BALI ROADMAP”
November 2008: Luc Gnacadja, Executive Secretary of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) addressed the African Conference of Ministers in Charge of Environment on Climate Change for Post-2012, and underscored the urgency of incorporating land and soil into the climate change dialogue.
The 19-20 November 2008 meeting is taking place in Algiers, Algeria, and is addressing issues related to, inter alia: the Bali Action Plan; the meaning and scope of the concepts of “comparable efforts” and “shared vision” for developing countries; and the concepts of measurable, verifiable and reportable for developed and developing countries. Executive Secretary Gnacadja emphasized that “The Bali Plan of Action explicitly provides ‘to take into account the future needs of African countries affected by desertification, drought and floods’,” and said that Africa must mobilize to create tools and platforms to take on the challenge. He called attention to the potential of carbon sequestration to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and emphasized its role in simultaneously addressing other global issues such as biodiversity conservation, food security and poverty alleviation. He added that, “with the science and technology now available, agreeing on measurable reportable and verifiable concepts to sequester carbon into soils is possible, doable, and should therefore not be delayed.”